Description: The Italians did not relinquish their Libyan hold until 1943. Libya then passed to the UN and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations. See CIA.gov for more up-to-date and extended information.